A Tutor for Every Child
Individual attention from teachers can boost student engagement and increase learning. Is it possible for schools to provide children with more of it?
Michael Salmonowicz | GOOD
For all the words spoken, books published, and legislation written about them, teaching and learning aren’t all that complicated. Teaching is simply the process of one person helping another person understand something. And learning is the process of figuring out what something is, how or why something works, or how to do something. Why, then, do so many children struggle in school? After all, our schools are filled with people who are trained to teach, and students who are, for the most part, ready and willing to learn. I’ve thought for some time that a key factor is the number of students assigned to a teacher.
Recently, I met with a former student we’ll call Janelle, for a mentoring session. Janelle is a high school junior planning to take the ACT in April, and we have spent considerable time preparing for the test. She already scores slightly above the national average, and improving that score by a few points should put her in good position to gain acceptance to a top-40 university. Math was Janelle’s weakest section on her first four practice tests—here she has been scoring a few points below the national average—so I asked a statistician friend to meet with us and provide some expert tutoring. I was hoping she could spend an hour or so reviewing with Janelle some tough problems from a previous test. What happened was more than any of us expected.
For the next four hours, they sat side-by-side working through 45 algebra, geometry, and trigonometry problems. They didn’t take a break to stretch, or chat, or go to the bathroom; they just spent four hours doing math. Educators often talk about the importance of student engagement—keeping kids focused on and interested in their work. Well, Janelle was completely engaged the entire time. Even though she was facing a large window that looked onto a busy street, not once did she stray from the work in order to people-watch. She paid attention, wrote out her work for each problem, asked questions when she didn’t understand something, and expressed her thoughts on what she was learning (“Ohhhh, I see.” “I should have gotten that one right.” “That makes sense.” “That’s not as hard as I thought it would be.”). After they finished the last problem, Janelle announced with a big smile, “I feel educated.”
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What kept Janelle so engaged? First, any time Janelle had a question, my friend had an answer. This is crucial, because students want to know that their teachers understand what they’re talking about. A teacher’s ability to quickly, confidently, and correctly answer questions gives them credibility with a student. Second, her tutor knew how to explain concepts in various ways. A good teacher knows that her teaching is only as effective as a student’s resultant understanding. Third, her tutor was extremely patient, willing to go step-by-step through every problem no matter how long it took. She also kept a calm demeanor and offered encouragement along the way. Students often take cues from their teachers, so a teacher who becomes frustrated when a student struggles likely will undermine that student’s confidence and motivation.
There is no doubt that my friend’s skillful teaching had plenty to do with Janelle’s remaining focused and interested. But the reason this great teaching was possible has to do with the context in which it occurred: Janelle was given individual attention for an uninterrupted block of time. In a typical classroom, a teacher’s talent can be undermined by the fact that their attention is divided between two dozen students. I highly doubt Janelle would have taken away so much from this interaction if her tutor had been working with an additional 20 students at the same time.